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Fish Identification

Fishing Regulations Vermont Freshwater Fishing


What a Difference a Fin Makes–

Detailed descriptions to help you identify fish


Salvelinus fontinalus

Cold-water species

Vermont’s only native stream-dwelling trout. Actually a char, they have worm-like markings against a greenish back, and their flanks are covered with light yellowish spots, with small bright red spots surrounded by blue halos along the lateral midsection. They have squarish tails, hence the nickname “squaretails.”


Oncorhynchus mykiss

Cold-water species

A true native to the American West that were introduced in Vermont in the 1800s. Their tail and flanks are heavily spotted with small, well-defined black spots, and their flank usually has a pink or reddish stripe, for which they are named. Migratory lake-run rainbow trout are silverfish in color and are called steelhead.


Lepomis gibbosus

Warm-water species

A small, brightly colored sunfish that is representative of a group of fish called “panfish,” which in Vermont includes bluegill, redbreast sunfish, rock bass and black crappie. Panfish rarely exceed 10 inches, but they are excellent eating, abundant and fun to catch for anglers of all ages.


Salmo trutta

Cold-water species

A true trout that were first brought
to Vermont from their native Europe
in 1892. They have a light brown
overall color, especially in streams,
with dark spots intermixed with
reddish-orange spots along their
flanks, with each spot surrounded
by a light halo.


Ameiurus nebulosus

Warm-water species

The “horned pout” are the most common member of the catfish family in Vermont. They have smooth, olive-brown to dark-brown flanks with a sharp, stout spine on the leading edge of their dorsal and pectoral fins. They have a broad, flat mouth surrounded by six whisker-like barbels.


Micropterus dolomieu

Warm-water species

Closely related to largemouth bass, except they prefer cooler, clearer waters, and when their mouth is closed, their upper jaw extends only to just below their eye. Their flanks are golden green to brownish bronze, with eight to 15 dark, thin vertical bars.


Salvelinus namaycush

Cold-water species

A native to many of Vermont’s deep, cold lakes, and like brook trout, are actually a char. They have a forked tail, white leading edges on their lower fins, and irregular light spots against a back-ground color that ranges from light olive green to gray.


Esox niger

Warm-water species

A member of the same family that includes northern pike. Unlike pike, pickerel have fully scaled gill covers,
and their tail, dorsal and anal fins have no conspicuous spots or blotches.
Their flanks are a light, golden green, with dark, chain-like markings.


Perca flavescens

Cool-water species

One of Vermont’s favorite food fishes and common to waters throughout the state. A schooling fish, yellow perch have golden-yellow flanks with six to eight dark vertical bars. In late winter and early spring, spawning males develop bright orange lower fins.


Salmo salar

Cold-water species

Identical to sea-going Atlantic salmon. They have a forked tail, silvery flanks and black spots on the upper half of their body. Unlike lake-dwelling brown trout, which they can closely resemble, salmon have no spots on their adipose and tail fins.


Micropterus salmoides

Warm-water species

The largest member of the sunfish family in Vermont. They have a large, round mouth when open, and when their mouth is closed, their upper jaw extends well past their eye. Their flanks are light green to golden green, with a pronounced horizontal bar.


Osmerus mordax

Cold-water species

A small, slender schooling fish
found in Vermont’s deeper and
colder lakes. They have a strongly
forked tail and iridescent silver flanks. They are a favorite forage fish of
trout and salmon, and are popular
with ice fishermen.


Esox lucius

Cool-water species

A long, slender fish that has a large mouth and dorsal and anal fins placed far to the rear. They have greenish-gray flanks with several rows of irregular, yellowish-white bean-shaped spots. Pike have scales only on the upper half of their gill covers, and their tail, dorsal and anal fins have dark spots or blotches.


Sander vitreus

Cool-water species

The largest member of the perch family that includes yellow perch and sauger. They have a large, silvery eye, a milky belly and flanks that range from olive brown to golden yellow. Walleye can be differentiated from sauger, which they closely resemble, by their first dorsal fin, which is dusky colored and spotless.