Correct shifting of gears is important. If you can’t get your vehicle into the right gear while driving, you will have less control.
2.3.1 – Manual Transmissions
Basic Method for Shifting Up. Most heavy vehicles with manual transmissions require double clutching to change gears. This is the basic method:
Shifting gears using double clutching requires practice. If you remain too long in neutral, you may have difficulty putting the vehicle into the next gear. If so, don’t try to force it. Return to neutral, release clutch, increase engine speed to match road speed, and try again.
Knowing When to Shift Up. There are two ways of knowing when to shift:
Use Engine Speed (rpm). Study the driver’s manual for your vehicle and learn the operating rpm range. Watch your tachometer, and shift up when your engine reaches the top of the range. (Some newer vehicles use “progressive” shifting: the rpm at which you shift becomes higher as you move up in the gears. Find out what’s right for the vehicle you will operate.)
Use Road Speed (mph). Learn what speeds each gear is good for. Then, by using the speedometer, you’ll know when to shift up.
With either method, you may learn to use engine sounds to know when to shift.
Basic Procedures for Shifting Down
Special conditions where you should downshift are:
Before Starting Down a Hill. Slow down and shift down to a speed that you can control without using the brakes hard. Otherwise the brakes can overheat and lose their braking power.
Downshift before starting down the hill. Make sure you are in a low enough gear, usually lower than the gear required to climb the same hill.
Before Entering a Curve. Slow down to a safe speed, and downshift to the right gear before entering the curve. This lets you use some power through the curve to help the vehicle be more stable while turning. It also allows you to speed up as soon as you are out of the curve.
2.3.2 – Multi-speed Rear Axles and Auxiliary Transmissions
Multi-speed rear axles and auxiliary transmissions are used on many vehicles to provide extra gears. You usually control them by a selector knob or switch on the gearshift lever of the main transmission. There are many different shift patterns. Learn the right way to shift gears in the vehicle you will drive.
2.3.3 – Automatic Transmissions
Some vehicles have automatic transmissions. You can select a low range to get greater engine braking when going down grades. The lower ranges prevent the transmission from shifting up beyond the selected gear (unless the governor rpm is exceeded). It is very important to use this braking effect when going down grades.
2.3.4 – Retarders
Some vehicles have “retarders.” Retarders help slow a vehicle, reducing the need for using your brakes. They reduce brake wear and give you another way to slow down. There are four basic types of retarders (exhaust, engine, hydraulic, and electric). All retarders can be turned on or off by the driver. On some vehicles the retarding power can be adjusted. When turned “on,” retarders apply their braking power (to the drive wheels only) whenever you let up on the accelerator pedal all the way.
Because these devices can be noisy, be sure you know where their use is permitted.
Caution. When your drive wheels have poor traction, the retarder may cause them to skid. Therefore, you should turn the retarder off whenever the road is wet, icy, or snow covered.
Regulations in red are new this year.
Purple text indicates an important note.